Reformation History I & II

Audio for Reformation History I:  (click here)
(click on links below for further reading)

Audio for Reformation History II:  (click here)
(Follow the notes below marked Part II)

 Partial source material:  Foxe's Book of Martyrs

1320            John Wycliffe (English philosopher, theologian, lay preacher, translator, reformer             & teacher at Oxford University)  Followers called Lollards.  He translated the entire Bible into 
English in 1382 from Latin & called it the Wycliffe Bible           

1373                     Jan Hus (Czech priest, philosopher, reformer) was born
       Forerunner of the Reformation - burned at the stake for heresy

1378            Great Schism of Western Christianity
                 Widespread concern over corruption in the church

1456            Johann Gutenberg prints the Latin Vulgate
                 Before this point a Bible was handwritten & cost a year’s wage

1471            Pope Sixtus IV needed to raise $ for the Sistene Chapel
            - Established the practice of selling indulgences for the dead
            - Famed for his nepotism
            - Personally involved in the infamous Pazzi Conspiracy (murder plot)
            - Helped furthered the agenda of the Spanish Inquisition

1492            Pope Alexander VI fathered 7 children by at least 2 mistresses

1516            Erasmus (priest & Greek scholar) publishes Greek translation of NT

Indulgences  (Wikipedia):
Remission of temporal punishment/severe penances in Purgatory still due for sins after absolution.  The unrestricted sale of indulgences by the Catholic Church was a widespread abuse during the later Middle Ages.

The earliest record of a plenary indulgence was Pope Urban II’s declaration at the Council of Clermont in 1095 where he remitted all penances incurred by crusaders.

Monies collected were used for building projects.  In 1517, Pope Leo X offered indulgences for those who gave alms to rebuild St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome.  This was aggressively marketed by Johann Tetzel as the purchase & sale of salvation for loved ones already dead.

Indulgence:
The behavior or attitude of people who allow themselves to do what they want, gratifying  desire, catering to a mood or whim, granting pleasure, practicing extravagance, liberal treatment, privilege



1517            Martin Luther posts The 95 Theses in Wittenberg
            – Protestant Reformation begins!  
                         (click here for cc of the actual text)
            *   Protesting indulgences/purgatory
            *   Liturgy in the language of the people
            *   Receiving both bread & wine
            *   Married Priests
            *   Justification by Faith
            *   Identified the Papacy as the Antichrist
            *   Later he wrote works challenging the Catholic devotion to Mary,
                        Praying to saints, transubstantiation, monasticism, authority of the pope…

1522            Martin Luther translates NT into German language

1526            William Tyndale completes NT from Greek without permission

1530            Augsburg Confession adopted by Lutherans

1531            England breaks from the authority of the Pope & Roman Catholic Church

      *   Tudor Dynasty
      *   Crowned King at age 17 in 1509, married that same year
      *   Observant Catholic, he heard up to 5 masses a day – except in hunting season
      *   Had 6 marriages & numerous mistresses
            1509 - Catherine of Aragon (Queen Mary I)    Marriage annulled in 1533
            1533 - Anne Boleyn (Queen Elizabeth I)    Beheaded in 1536
            1536 - Jane Seymour (King Edward VI) Died 1537
            1540 - Anne of Cleves / Annulled 1540
            1540 - Catherine Howard / Beheaded 1542
            1543 - Catherine Parr / Henry VIII died 1547
     
  • Decline of Feudalism, Rise of Nationalism, Rise of Common Law
  • Increased circulation of the Bible in native languages via the printing press
  • Increasing Literacy

1534 – Thos. Cromwell began the Dissolution of Monasteries
            Catholic Church owned up to 1/3 of the land in England
            Henry used the revenue to help build Naval & coastal defense

===============================   Part II  ================================

1534 – Society of Jesus – JesuitsCounter Reformation – under Pope Paul III
            - Founded by Ignatius of Loyola, a Spaniard of Basque origin
                        - Francis Xavier & Peter Faber (vows of poverty, chastity, obedience)
            - Military Background “God’s Soldiers” – training takes 8-14 years
            - “If the church shall have defined anything to be black which to our eyes appears                                     to be white, we ought in like manner to pronounce it to be black”
             - Jesuit Universities & presence in 130 countries
1547            King Edward VI – Protestant     (took the throne at age 9)
            - Child of Jane Seymour (3rd wife of Henry VIII)
            - Ruled for 6 years (died at age 16) of lung infection
            - Named Lady Jane Grey as his heir, excluding his half sisters, Mary & Elizabeth

1553 – Queen Mary I of England (Bloody Mary)
            - Immediately deposed Jane Grey (who was ultimately beheaded)
            - Retroactively validated her father’s marriage to her mother & her claim to rule
            - 1554 Mary married Philip II of Spain
            - Restoration of Roman Catholicism, revoked Protestant reforms
            - Reigned for 5 years
            - Extremely well educated & accomplished woman
            - Enjoyed fine clothes & gambling with cards
            - Ordered 283 Protestants burned at the stake for heresy
                        Including Archbishop Cranmer, Bishop Ridley & Latimer
- Died at age 42 of an ovarian cysts or uterine cancer
- Eventually she shared a tomb with Elizabeth in Westminster Abbey

            - Protestant (could not be Catholic because she would be considered illegitimate)
            - Considered many opinions in making policy in the church
            - Catholics who remained loyal to the Pope were regarded as traitors
            - Those who wanted the reforms to go much further were also not tolerated

            - In 1559 The Reformation Bill defined the Church of England as believing:
                        - Communion as a Consubstantiation celebration
                        - Abuse of the Pope in the litany
                        - No Catholic vestments, banned images from churches
                        - Ministers could marry
                        - confirmed Elizabeth as Supreme Head of the Church of England
                                    The Bill failed
-       Act of Supremacy
            - validated 10 acts that Mary had repealed
                        - confirmed Elizabeth as Supreme Governor of the Church of England
            - allowed transubstantiation belief in Communion
-       All bishops were removed (except one), a hundred instructors at Oxford lost their jobs, and many dignitaries resigned rather than support the Act of Supremacy. There was more destruction off roods, vestments, stone altars, statues, ornaments
            -     Act of Uniformity
                        - forced to attend Sunday service in Anglican Church with new BCP
                        - kept wording that allowed for both understandings of Communion
                        - revoked harsh laws proposed against Catholics
                        - removed the abuse of the Pope from the litany
            -      Elizabeth’s reign lasted 44 years – Solidified the Church of England

            - written largely by Thos. Cranmer beginning in 1536
            - states Anglican doctrine as over against Roman Catholic practice  or the more radically 
                 Reformed Protestant (Calvinist) doctrine of the Puritans

1603 – The Stuart Kings: James I & Charles I lead to the English Civil War
            - More savage episode of the Reformation took place – actually 3 wars
            - Only partly about religion
            - Abolition of BCP
            - Puritan Parliament who wanted the last traces of Catholicism removed
            - The monopoly of the Church of England on Christian worship ended

1649-60    English Commonwealth
            - Trial & execution of Charles I
            - Oliver Cromwell was made Lord Protector
            - Monarchy was restored in 1660

1648      Peace of Westphalia (ended European wars of religion)
            - Series of Peace Treaties
            - ended 30 Years War in the Holy Roman Empire
            - Ended 80 Years War between Spain & Dutch Republic

1688            Glorious Revolution – ended The Reformation
      - Protestant “William III of Orange” conquered England
      - Overthrew King James II of England, a moderate Catholic
      - Ended any chance of England returning to Catholicism
      - Called “Glorious Revolution” because it was quick & very little bloodshed
            

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